Persecution, Deportation, and Emigration

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Troller, Norbert, (1900-1981) Terezin: Dream Last Stop before the Last Stop (1943),

Troller, Norbert, (1900-1981) Terezin: Dream Last Stop before the Last Stop (1943),

Born in Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czechoslovakia) in 1896, Norbert Troller served as a soldier in World War I. After the war he studied architecture in Brno and Vienna. He was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942, where he worked as an architect for the Jewish self-administration of the camp, and produced works of art as well. In 1944 he was imprisoned by the Gestapo and then sent to Auschwitz. He survived and emigrated to the United States in 1948 where he designed many Jewish Community Centers.

Troller, Norbert, Kumbal for the Conductor Raphael Schaechter, Watercolor 1943

Troller, Norbert, Kumbal for the Conductor Raphael Schaechter, Watercolor 1943

Appointed by the Jewish Council of Elders to design buildings for the Theresienstadt Ghetto, Troller made this illustration of a “Kumbal” for the Czech conductor Raphael Schächter, who was later murdered in Auschwitz.

Troller, Norbert, Terezin: Synagogue in Theresienstadt, Watercolor (1942)

Troller, Norbert, Terezin: Synagogue in Theresienstadt, Watercolor (1942)

A water color of a Synagogue in Theresienstadt.

 Schames, Samson, (1898-1967), The Gate Internment Camp at Huyton near Liverpool  (1940)

Schames, Samson, (1898-1967), The Gate Internment Camp at Huyton near Liverpool (1940)

Samson Schames came from an old Frankfurt family. Trained in the Staedelschule, he stood at the beginning of his career when National Socialism began. After emigrating to London he created collages and mosaics from found materials and debris, which urgently convey the greyness and destruction under bombardment and during his internment in the Huyton Alien Internment Camp. The works created a breakthrough at that time in their bold forms for abstraction.

David L. Bloch ( 1910-2002), Self Portrait in a Rickshaw, watercolor, 1943

David L. Bloch ( 1910-2002), Self Portrait in a Rickshaw, watercolor, 1943

Born 1910, Bavaria, David Ludwig Bloch lost his hearing as a child. He began to study porcelain painting in 1925, and was employed at this until 1934. Bloch became a commercial artist and decorator with the department store Sallinger in Straubing, but subsequently was fired for being Jewish. During Kristallnacht Bloch was arrested and imprisoned in Dachau for four weeks, after which he found work with the master painter Heinz Voges in Munich. In 1940 he emigrated to Shanghai, where married to Lilly Cheng Disiu, who was also deaf. Bloch moved to New York in 1949.

Mr. Nobody, Shanghai (1947), Bloch, David Ludwig, 1910-2002

Mr. Nobody, Shanghai (1947), Bloch, David Ludwig, 1910-2002

Bloch's works depict the plight of nearly 20,000 Jews from Central Europe who fled to Shanghai as a last refuge from the Nazis. Shanghai became a destination for refugees because it was the only place Jews from Europe could enter without a visa.

Born in Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czechoslovakia) in 1896, Norbert Troller served as a soldier in World War I. After the war he studied architecture in Brno and Vienna. He was deported to Theresienstadt in 1942, where he worked as an architect for the Jewish self-administration of the camp, and produced works of art as well. In 1944 he was imprisoned by the Gestapo and then sent to Auschwitz.  He survived and emigrated to the United States in 1948 where he designed many Jewish Community Centers.Appointed by the Jewish Council of Elders to design buildings for the Theresienstadt Ghetto, Troller made this illustration of a “Kumbal” for the Czech conductor Raphael Schächter, who was later murdered in Auschwitz.A water color of a Synagogue in Theresienstadt.Samson Schames came from an old Frankfurt family. Trained in the Staedelschule, he stood at the beginning of his career when National Socialism began. After emigrating to London he created collages and mosaics from found materials and debris, which urgently convey the greyness and destruction under bombardment and during his internment in the Huyton Alien Internment Camp. The works created a breakthrough at that time in their bold forms for abstraction.Born 1910, Bavaria, David Ludwig Bloch lost his hearing as a child. He began to study porcelain painting in 1925, and was employed at this until 1934. Bloch became a commercial artist and decorator with the department store Sallinger in Straubing, but subsequently was fired for being Jewish. During Kristallnacht Bloch was arrested and imprisoned in Dachau for four weeks, after which he found work with the master painter Heinz Voges in Munich. In 1940 he emigrated to Shanghai, where married to Lilly Cheng Disiu, who was also deaf. Bloch moved to New York in 1949.Bloch's works depict the plight of nearly 20,000 Jews from Central Europe who fled to Shanghai as a last refuge from the Nazis.  Shanghai became a destination for refugees because it was the only place Jews from Europe could enter without a visa.

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