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Biographical/Historical Information

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882—1944) was an English astronomer, who taught since 1913 in Cambridge and served as director of the observatory. 1906—13 he also was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. Eddington was known primarily for researches on the motion, internal constitution, and evolution of stars; cosmology; and elucidation of the theory of relativity.

Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) was an Austrian physicist, who succeeded Hendrik Lorentz as professor of theoretical physics at the University of Leiden in 1912. He remained there until his death in 1933.

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) was a Dutch physicist, who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman.

Willem de Sitter (1872—1934) was a Dutch astronomer, who taught since 1908 at the University of Leiden; since 1919 he served as director of its observatory. De Sitter studied distribution, motion, and parallax of stars; Galilean satellites of Jupiter; and recession of extragalactic nebulae from the sun. He calculated the radius of the universe and enunciated the theory of an expanding universe. B De Sitter made cosmological deductions based on Einstein’s theory of relativity.

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Albert Einstein with Paul Ehrenfest, Willem de Sitter, Arthur Stanley Eddington and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in Leiden, Leo Baeck Institute, F 5347K.