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Biographical/Historical Information

Fritz Busch was born in Siegen, Westphalia on March 13, 1890. He conducted operas at Aachen, Stuttgart and Dresden before being dismissed from his post at Dresden in 1933 because of his opposition to the Nazi regime. He worked in South America and Scandinavia before becoming the music director of Glyndebourne Festival Opera in England in 1934. With the outbreak of World War II, Busch left Glyndebourne and focused on work at the New York Metropolitan Opera and in South America. From 1934 to 1951, he was principal guest conductor of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra in Copenhagen. He resumed the Glyndebourne musical directorship in 1950. Fritz Busch died in London in 1951.

Helmuth Nathan - physician, teacher, and historian of medicine - was born on October 26, 1901 in Hamburg, Germany. He studied medicine and philosophy at the Universities of Freiburg and Hamburg and received his medical degree in 1925. Until his emigration in 1936, he worked at a number of hospitals in Hamburg and wrote extensively on medical topics, such as general surgery, surgical infections, pathology, and history of arts and medicine. Dr. Nathan settled in New York in 1936 and became a successful physician; he also taught for many years at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. But Helmuth Nathan was also a well-established artist, creating drawings, graphics, glass windows, and sculptures. He tried and succeeded in bringing both of his passions - art and medicine - closer together. Helmuth Nathan died in New York in 1979.

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Nathan, Helmuth: Fritz Busch : March 1948, Leo Baeck Institute, 2001.34.