After a pogrom in 1478, when the Jews were expelled from Passau, the church was built in place of a former synagogue. When the church fell into disuse and was nearly razed in 1803, it was falsely identified as the "Old Synagogue" and was often portrayed as a romantic ruin, as in this print. The church was rededicated in 1861.
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Seeberger, Gustav: The old synagogue in Passau, Leo Baeck Institute, 92.16.