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Studentenverbindung (student societes) were fraternity-like associations prevalent in German-speaking, Central European countries. In the 19th century, they were influenced by German idealism and nationalism. In reaction to widespread antisemitic protests, the Karlsbad Decrees disbanded all such organizations and censorship was enforced. After the German revolution in 1848, fraternities were once again legal and began to flourish and diversify. Since antisemitism pervaded in certain associations, Jewish fraternities were formed beginning in the 1880s. AV Veda was one such fraternity that was formed in 1896 at the University of Würzburg in Würzburg, Germany, though it did not belong to any particular association. All Jewish organizations were disbanded by the Nazis in 1933. A zirkel is a monogram symbol used by the student societies (Studentenverbindung). It contains the first letters of the society's name, a combination of the letters V-C-F or E-F-V, and an exclamation point at the end.
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Unknown Artist: AV Veda Fraternity Banner, Leo Baeck Institute, 96.5.
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