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Biographical/Historical Information

Max Reinhardt was born Maximilian Goldmann in Baden bei Wien, Austria. From 1902 until the beginning of Nazi rule in 1933, he worked as a director at various theaters in Berlin. From 1905 to 1930 he managed "Deutsches Theater" in Berlin and, in addition, "Theater in der Josefstadt" in Vienna from 1924 to 1933. In 1920, he established the Salzburg Festival with the performance of Hofmannsthal's "Jedermann". By employing powerful staging techniques, and harmonising stage design, language, music and choreography, Reinhardt introduced new dimensions into German theater. He also directed several films. After the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi-governed Germany in 1938, he emigrated first to Britain, then to the United States. Max Reinhardt died in 1943.

Imre (Emery) Gondor was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1896. He attended the Royal Hungarian University and received his diploma from the National Academy of Art. As a young art teacher, he observed many children who had suffered during and after World War I, and he was inspired to learn more about their afflictions and how art could be used to help them. This prompted a lifelong interest in psychology. The psychoanalyst, Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest introduced Gondor to psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. When Gondor moved to Vienna to attend the Academy of Industrial Arts and working on book illustrations, he also embarked on a field of progressive art education for emotionally disturbed children. Gondor emigrated to the United States in 1936. In 1959, he received his diploma in Clinical Psychology from New York State University, and in 1968, he became director of the art program at the Institute for Mental Retardation at New York Medical College. Emery Gondor died in 1977.

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Gondor, Emery I.: Max Reinhardt, Leo Baeck Institute, 2002.152.