External links are disabled on the kiosk. Please visit archive links from desktop or mobile devices.

Paragraphs and paragraphs…

Prior oral and written inquiries and petitions are useless.

Prior oral and written inquiries and petitions are useless.


The lives of many Jews had become undone within the span of half a year, through occupational bans, Aryanization, dispossession, and denaturalization. After the Anschluss, many Austrian Jews again found themselves in an unstable and chaotic situation. It was all the more cynical then that many of them seemed to be confronted with a complicated, in some ways pedantic bureaucracy regarding visas. A September 27th, 1938 letter from the American Consulate General to Tony (Antonie) and Kurt Frenkl gives example of this: “Your visa application can be accepted at the earliest within months.” The quotas for Central European immigrants were filled. In order to be put on a waiting list for a visa, applicants had to fill in a pre-registration form. And, in order to “avoid delays,” an individual affidavit had to be submitted per person. So Tony and Kurt had to wait even longer, bracing themselves for the next bureaucratic hurdle.



Leo Baeck Institute – New York | Berlin


Tony Frenkl Collection, AR 11032


Box 1, folder 1


on the days before